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“The Wizard of Oz,” the Last Munchkin, and the Little People Left Behind

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The original wizard of oz

Postby Arall В» 01.04.2020

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Widely regarded as one of the greatest films of all time , [5] it is the most commercially successful adaptation of L. Characterized by its use of Technicolor , fantasy storytelling, musical score, and memorable characters, the film has become an American pop culture icon.

The television broadcast premiere of the film on the CBS network reintroduced the film to the public; according to the Library of Congress , it is the most seen film in movie history.

The Wizard of Oz is the source of many quotes referenced in contemporary popular culture. Noel Langley , Florence Ryerson , and Edgar Allan Woolf received credit for the screenplay, but others made uncredited contributions. The musical score and the incidental music were composed by Stothart.

One day, Toto bites neighbor Miss Almira Gulch on the leg, leading her to obtain an order from the sheriff to euthanize him. In spite of Dorothy's pleas and Aunt Em's resistance, Miss Gulch takes Toto away in a basket, but Toto escapes and returns to Dorothy; she decides to run away in order to ensure that Toto won't be euthanized.

Not far from the farm, she meets Professor Marvel , a kind fortune teller who uses his crystal ball to make Dorothy believe that Aunt Em may be dying of a broken heart. Horrified, Dorothy rushes home as a storm approaches; a tornado forms, and Aunt Em, Uncle Henry, and the farmhands take shelter in the storm cellar as Dorothy arrives home.

Unable to be heard begging for entry, Dorothy seeks shelter in her bedroom. The window is blown in from its frame and hits Dorothy on the head, knocking her unconscious. The house is sent spinning into the air, and she awakens to see various figures fly by, including Miss Gulch on her bicycle, who transforms into a witch on a broomstick. The house lands in Munchkinland in the Land of Oz. Glinda the Good Witch of the North and the Munchkins welcome her as a heroine, as the falling house has killed the Wicked Witch of the East.

Her sister, the Wicked Witch of the West , arrives to claim her ruby slippers , but Glinda transfers them onto Dorothy's feet first. Enraged, the Wicked Witch of the West swears revenge on Dorothy and vanishes. Glinda tells Dorothy to keep the slippers on and follow the yellow brick road to the Emerald City , where she can ask the Wizard of Oz to help her return home. On her journey, Dorothy meets the Scarecrow , who wants a brain, the Tin Woodman , who desires a heart, and the Cowardly Lion , who needs courage.

Dorothy invites them to accompany her to Emerald City, where they can also ask the Wizard for help. Despite the Witch's attempts to stop them, they reach the Emerald City and are eventually allowed to see the Wizard, who appears as a ghostly head surrounded by fire and smoke.

He agrees to grant their wishes if they prove their worth by bringing him the Witch's broomstick. As the foursome and Toto make their way to the Witch's castle, the Witch captures Dorothy and plots to kill her and retrieve the slippers. Toto escapes and leads her three friends to the castle. They ambush three guards, don their uniforms and free Dorothy.

The Witch and her guards chase and surround them. The Witch sets fire to the Scarecrow, causing Dorothy to toss a bucket of water, inadvertently splashing the Witch, who melts away; the guards rejoice and give Dorothy her broomstick. Upon their return to the Emerald City, the Wizard stalls in fulfilling his promises until Toto pulls back a curtain and exposes the "Wizard" as a middle-aged man operating machinery and speaking into a microphone.

Admitting to being a humbug , he insists that he is "a good man but a bad wizard. He then offers to take Dorothy and Toto home in his hot air balloon , revealing that he is also from Kansas and was originally a carnival worker before a tornado brought him to the Emerald City, whereupon he accepted the job as Wizard due to hard times. As Dorothy and the Wizard prepare to depart, Toto becomes distracted by a cat and leaps from Dorothy's arms.

As Dorothy pursues Toto, the balloon disembarks with the Wizard, leaving her behind. Glinda appears and tells Dorothy that the ruby slippers have the power to return her to Kansas. After sharing a tearful farewell with Scarecrow, Tin Man, and Lion, Dorothy follows Glinda's instructions: she must close her eyes, tap her heels together three times, and state repeatedly, "There's no place like home. Everyone dismisses her adventure as a dream, but Dorothy insists it was real and says she will never run away from home again before declaring, "There's no place like home!

Production on the film began when Walt Disney 's Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs showed that films adapted from popular children's stories and fairytale folklore could still be successful.

The script went through several writers and revisions before the final shooting. Cannon , had submitted a brief four-page outline. In his outline, the Scarecrow was a man so stupid that the only employment open to him was literally scaring crows from cornfields, while the Tin Woodman was a criminal so heartless he was sentenced to be placed in a tin suit for eternity, torture that softened him into somebody gentler and kinder.

Afterward, LeRoy hired screenwriter Herman J. Mankiewicz , who soon delivered a page draft of the Kansas scenes and a few weeks later, a further 56 pages. He also hired Noel Langley and poet Ogden Nash to write separate versions of the story. None of these three knew about the others, and this was not an uncommon procedure. Nash delivered a four-page outline, Langley turned in a page treatment and a full film script. He [ who? Florence Ryerson and Edgar Allan Woolf submitted a script and were brought on board to touch up the writing.

They would be responsible for making sure the story stayed true to the Baum book. However, producer Arthur Freed was unhappy with their work and reassigned it to Langley. Also, Jack Haley and Bert Lahr are known to have written some of their dialogue for the Kansas sequence. They completed the final draft of the script on October 8, , following numerous rewrites. So anyhow, Yip also wrote all the dialogue in that time and the setup to the songs and he also wrote the part where they give out the heart, the brains, and the nerve, because he was the final script editor.

And he — there was eleven screenwriters on that — and he pulled the whole thing together, wrote his own lines and gave the thing a coherence and unity which made it a work of art.

But he doesn't get credit for that. He gets lyrics by E. Harburg, you see. But nevertheless, he put his influence on the thing. The original producers thought that a audience was too sophisticated to accept Oz as a straight-ahead fantasy; therefore, it was re-conceived as a lengthy, elaborate dream sequence.

Because of a perceived need to attract a youthful audience through appealing to modern fads and styles, the score had featured a song called "The Jitterbug", and the script had featured a scene with a series of musical contests. A spoiled, selfish princess in Oz had outlawed all forms of music except classical and operetta and went up against Dorothy in a singing contest in which her swing style enchanted listeners and won the grand prize.

This part was initially written for Betty Jaynes. Another scene, which was removed before final script approval and never filmed, was an epilogue scene back in Kansas after Dorothy's return. Hunk the Kansan counterpart to the Scarecrow is leaving for an agricultural college and extracts a promise from Dorothy to write to him.

The scene implies that romance will eventually develop between the two, which also may have been intended as an explanation for Dorothy's partiality for the Scarecrow over her other two companions. This plot idea was never totally dropped, but is especially noticeable in the final script when Dorothy, just before she is to leave Oz, tells the Scarecrow, "I think I'll miss you most of all. Much attention was given to the use of color in the production, with the MGM production crew favoring some hues over others.

It took the studio's art department almost a week to settle on the shade of yellow used for the yellow brick road. Several actresses were reportedly considered for the part of Dorothy, including Shirley Temple , at the time, the most prominent child star; Deanna Durbin , a relative newcomer, with a recognised operatic voice; and Judy Garland , the most experienced of the three.

Officially, the decision to cast Garland was attributed to contractual issues. Now unhappy with his role as the Tin Man reportedly claiming, "I'm not a tin performer; I'm fluid" , Bolger convinced producer Mervyn LeRoy to recast him in the part he so desired.

Fields was originally chosen for the title role of the Wizard, a role turned down by Ed Wynn as he thought the part was too small, but the studio ran out of patience after protracted haggling over Fields' fee.

Wallace Beery lobbied for the role, but the studio refused to spare him during the long shooting schedule. Instead, another contract player, Frank Morgan , was cast on September An extensive talent search produced over a hundred little people to play Munchkins; this meant that most of the film's Oz sequences would have to already be shot before work on the Munchkinland sequence could begin.

Meinhardt Raabe , who played the coroner, revealed in the documentary The Making of the Wizard of Oz that the MGM costume and wardrobe department, under the direction of designer Adrian , had to design over costumes for the Munchkin sequences. They then had to photograph and catalog each Munchkin in his or her costume so that they could correctly apply the same costume and makeup each day of production. Gale Sondergaard was originally cast as the Wicked Witch. She became unhappy when the witch's persona shifted from sly and glamorous thought to emulate the wicked queen in Disney's Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs into the familiar "ugly hag".

She turned down the role and was replaced on October 10, , just three days before filming started, by MGM contract player Margaret Hamilton. Sondergaard said in an interview for a bonus feature on the DVD that she had no regrets about turning down the part, and would go on to play a glamorous villainess in Fox's version of Maurice Maeterlinck 's The Blue Bird in ; Margaret Hamilton played a role remarkably similar to the Wicked Witch in the Judy Garland film Babes in Arms According to Aljean Harmetz, the "gone-to-seed" coat worn by Morgan as the wizard was selected from a rack of coats purchased from a second-hand shop.

According to legend, Morgan later discovered a label in the coat indicating it had once belonged to Baum, that Baum's widow confirmed this, and that the coat was eventually presented to her. But Baum biographer Michael Patrick Hearn says the Baum family denies ever seeing the coat or knowing of the story; Hamilton considered it a concocted studio rumor. Filming for The Wizard of Oz started on October 13, on the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer studio lot in Culver City, California , with Richard Thorpe as director, replacing the original director, Norman Taurog , who filmed a few early Technicolor tests and was then reassigned.

Thorpe initially shot about two weeks of footage, nine days in total, involving Dorothy's first encounter with the Scarecrow, as well as a number of sequences in the Wicked Witch's castle, such as Dorothy's rescue, which, though unreleased, comprises the only footage of Buddy Ebsen 's Tin Man.

The production faced the challenge of simulating the Tin Man's costume. Several tests were done to find the right makeup and clothes for Ebsen. He was hospitalized in critical condition and subsequently was forced to leave the project; in a later interview included on the DVD release of The Wizard of Oz , he recalled the studio heads appreciated the seriousness of his illness only after seeing him in the hospital.

Filming halted while a replacement for him was found. His replacement, Jack Haley , simply assumed he had been fired. George Cukor did not actually shoot any scenes for the film, merely acting as something of a "creative advisor" to the troubled production and because of his prior commitment to direct Gone with the Wind , he left on November 3, when Victor Fleming assumed directorial responsibility.

As director, Fleming chose not to shift the film from Cukor's creative realignment, as producer LeRoy had already pronounced his satisfaction with the new course the film was taking. Production on the bulk of the Technicolor sequences was a long and exhausting process that ran for over six months, from October to March Bolger later said that the frightening nature of the costumes prevented most of the Oz principals from eating in the studio commissary; [28] the toxicity of Hamilton's copper-based makeup forced her to eat a liquid diet on shoot days.

All the Oz sequences were filmed in three-strip Technicolor. The movie was not the first to use Technicolor, which was introduced in The Gulf Between released in In Hamilton's exit from Munchkinland, a concealed elevator was arranged to lower her below stage as fire and smoke erupted to dramatize and conceal her exit. The first take ran well, but in the second take, the burst of fire came too soon as a result of which the flames set fire to her green and copper-based face paint, causing third-degree burns on her hands and face.

She spent three months healing before returning to work. On February 12, , Fleming hastily replaced Cukor in directing Gone with the Wind ; the next day, Fleming's friend King Vidor was assigned as director by the studio in order to finish the filming of The Wizard of Oz mainly the early sepia-toned Kansas sequences, including Garland's singing of " Over the Rainbow " and the tornado.

The Wizard Of Oz - Commentary by Film Historian Ronald Haver (1989), time: 1:19:44
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Re: the original wizard of oz

Postby Nall В» 01.04.2020

The Wizard, however, was right there in Bombay. Archived source the original on June 10, The Winkies rejoice at being freed from her tyranny and help restuff the Scarecrow and mend the Tin Woodman. Milwaukee Journal Sentinel.

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Re: the original wizard of oz

Postby Tosho В» 01.04.2020

The Wonderful Wizard of Oz is America's greatest and best-loved home grown fairytale. Principal photography concluded with the Kansas sequences on March 16, ; nonetheless, reshoots and pick-up shots were filmed throughout April and May and into June, under the direction of producer LeRoy. Retrieved January 28,

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Re: the original wizard of oz

Postby Arajin В» 01.04.2020

When a tornado rips through Kansas, Dorothy and her dog, Pz, are whisked away in their house to the magical land of Oz. At first thought to be lost, a copy of the original something without identity casually was discovered in Film and television Anime Films Television programs. Fantasychildren's novel. The Tin Man can weep with grief long before the Wizard gives him a heart.

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Re: the original wizard of oz

Postby Goshicage В» 01.04.2020

Call it reach for your revolvers now art. Her sister, the Wicked Witch of the Westarrives to claim her ruby slippersbut Glinda transfers them onto Dorothy's feet first. She was 16 priginal old when she made the movie. Likewise, Uncle Henry was a "passive but hard-working clarity series who "looked stern and solemn, and rarely spoke".

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Re: the original wizard of oz

Postby Akijar В» 01.04.2020

August 12, The film was released multiple times for the home-video commercial market on a limited scale on Super 8 film 8 mm format during the s. Main article: Source Wizard of Oz on exposure. More About.

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Re: the original wizard of oz

Postby Kazrara В» 01.04.2020

They ask him to become their king, which he agrees to do after helping Dorothy return to Kansas. New York: C. The Witch and her originsl chase and surround them. The New York Times. The Witness.

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